Branches of Biology

Biology is an extensive science that is commonly defined as complex due to the many areas it covers. Life is enabled by many biological processes, thus it cannot be studied as one single unit. The science is therefore classified into branches that cover the different aspects of life. Some of the branches of biology include:


Anatomy is the study of the structures that make up living organisms, specifically human beings. It involves studying the organization of the human body and therefore it is applied in the medical field. Experts in anatomy are known as anatomists. They are knowledgeable of the location of the different organs in the body. Anatomy is important in the treatment of medical conditions. It is therefore applied in physiology, which is the study of the functions of the different body parts.


This field covers the different chemical reactions that take place in living organisms. Different biological processes take place in a living organism to enable its survival. These processes involve chemical substances and therefore it is important to know how they interact to enable the functioning of a living organism. Biochemists study the biomolecules, which are involved in these chemical reactions.


This is the general study of plants and their functions. It is an important branch of biology because plants play a huge role in human life. They are used as a source of food, medicine, fuel, livestock feed, and many other uses that are important in the existence of humankind. The individuals who practice botany are known as botanists. They specialize in identifying, classifying, and studying the function of the plants.


This branch of biology specializes in the study of insects. Insects are a significant part of the environment. They impact human life through their interactions with other living organisms in their ecosystems. The study of insects is important in different fields such as agriculture where their interactions with plants impact the sector. Some insects, for example, play a significant role in pollination, while others are plant pests.


This is a modern form of biology, which involves the manipulation of living organisms to attain specific characteristics or functions. Genetic engineering is carried out in biotechnology whereby the genetic makeup of living organisms is studied thoroughly to enable its manipulation. There are different reasons for carrying out genetic engineering such as attaining certain desirable traits, eliminating the undesirable characteristics, or improving on the already existing characteristics. Biotechnology is useful in different fields including agriculture, medicine, and environmental activities. The biological processes that take place in a living organism are exploited to improve human life.


Microbiology is the study of microorganisms such as living organisms that are single-celled. They include organisms such as bacteria, fungi, algae, and viruses. These organisms can be found existing singly or in groups known as colonies. Studying microorganisms is mainly essential in the medical field because many diseases are caused by microbes. Microbiologists study different aspects of the microorganisms including their physiology, biological processes, and functioning. Treating the medical conditions that are caused by these microorganisms requires understanding them first. Microorganisms are also useful to man in areas such as cleaning the environment, where microorganisms are used to clean oil spills, and food production processes, such as fermentation to produce beer and yogurt.


Ecology is the study of the relationships that exist between living organisms and the environment. Living organisms cannot exist without the help of other organisms which are in their surroundings. A living organism needs to interact with other organisms and the environment for survival. The environmental conditions in which a living organism exists affects its behavior. Human beings also depend on the environment for survival and therefore studying these interactions is essential.

There are many other classifications of biology all of which cover different areas but they unite to form one broad field due to the three simple concepts that form the basis of biology. These concepts include:

    1. The cell is the fundamental unit of life
    2. Genes form the basic units of heredity
    3. Evolution controls the emergence and extinction of the different species of living organisms

There are numerous branches of biology as indicated above. Some of these branches have not been listed in this article. Student who often have difficulty understanding these topics can hire companies that provide biology help online to improve their grades.