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**Discussion Questions**

- What was the purpose of this experiment?
- What is the hypothetical equation for the reaction of Fe
^{2+}and ortho-phenanthroline? - When preparing the samples, the amount of stock B (Fe
^{+2}) was constant but the amount of

ortho-phenanthroline increased.

- Looking at the picture below, what do you notice about the colors of the samples as you go from #1 to #8 ?
- How does this observation compare with what was expected?
- How was this observation evident on the graph?
- How can you explain what happens to the absorbance of samples #2 – #5?
- How can you explain what happens to the absorbance for the last 3 samples?

- The “n” value is the mole ratio for the balanced equation. Mole ratios in a balanced equation

are whole number values (i.e integers). Write the full balanced equation for the reaction

between Fe+2 and ortho-phenanthroline using in your result for “n”.

- The true result for n = 3. Calculate the % error. Compare your experimental result to this value and comment on the comparison.

% error = [(𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑢𝑎𝑙 𝑣𝑎𝑙𝑢𝑒−𝑒𝑥𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑣𝑎𝑙𝑢𝑒)/ 𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑢𝑎𝑙 𝑣𝑎𝑙𝑢𝑒] x 100

- Discuss 3 possible sources of experimental error and how the errors would affect the results.

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**Final Calculations**

You should complete and submit all of the following calculations. Remember, a complete calculations section includes:

- Identify what you are calculating
- The equation used for the calculation
- The equation filled in with the data (including units)
- The final result/answer for the calculation (
)__with proper units and sig figs__

For this experiment, you can show your worked out calculations in the space provided or on a separate page.

This first set of calculations deals with the Fe^{+2} solutions used in the experiment.

** Stock A Molarity**: (Note: 0.XXXX grams comes from the data pic for grams of ferrous Av

M_{A} =

** Stock B Molarity: **(note: V

_{A}= 25.00 mL (volume of the pipet) and V

_{B}= 250.0 mL (volume of the volumetric flask)

M_{B} =

** Millimoles of Fe^{+2} in solutions # 1 – 8**: For each solution 10.00 mL of the Stock B solution was pipetted into each flask.

Millimoles of Fe^{+2 } = (10.00 mL) x (M_{B})

This set of calculations deals with the information from the graph.

** Average Absorbance for the Horizontal Data: **Determine the average value for the absorbances of the 3 horizontal data points

Average Horizontal Absorbance =

** Intersection point of the graph.** You should notice on the graph that if a horizontal line is drawn through the horizontal points, it will intersect the increasing trendline. You can calculate the millimoles of ortho-phenanthroline that corresponds to that intersection point by using the y = m x + b trendline equation from the graph.

Where:

- y = your average horizontal absorbance
- m = slope from the trendline
- b = y intercept from the trend line

You can solve for the “x” value – this is the millimoles of ortho-phenanthroline at the intersection

y = m x + b**“n” value** – this is the ratio of the millimoles of ortho-phenanthroline at the intersection point to the millimoles of Fe^{+2} in the solutions.

“n’” = Millimoles of ortho-phenanthroline at the the intersection point **/** millimoles of Fe^{+2} in each solution

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**General Graph Format**

- The graph should be a full page (8 ½ x 11)
- The plotted points should take up most of the page (adjust x or y axis scaling if necessary).
- Clearly show all data points
- Make sure to label both axes with the variable and units
- Title the graph correctly. The title for the graph is NOT the title of the experiment. The title of the graph is “y-variable” vs. “x-variable”… Fill in the proper labels for the x & y values.
- Don’t connect the dots when a slope and intercept are determined from a best fit line. Use excel to put in a trendline.

### HOW TO DRAW THE GRAPH IN EXCEL (2016) For The Stoichiometry Of A Metal Complex Experiment

Note: This graph will have 2 sets of data plotted and one best fit line with the y = m x + b equation

- Type in the data/calcs from your worksheet table for solutions # 2 – 8; You will NOT plot solution #1 and do not include units or labels, just the numbers.
- first column = X axis (millimoles of ortho-phenanthroline)

- second column = Y axis (absorbance)

- Highlight only the x & y data for the increasing data (solutions # 2 – 5) & click on the INSERT tab along the top
- In the CHARTS box, choose
**SCATTER**(with only markers – top left) for the chart type. This will automatically show the graph for the 4 data points that were highlighted. - Double click on the [chart title] and re-type the actual title for this graph. (Remember the title is the (y vs x) actual varible labels for this graph)
- Click inside the graphed area and then click on the [+] at the upper right corner of the graph (this allows you to add chart elements). Be sure the following 5 items are checked:
- Axes
- Axis titles
- Chart title
- Gridlines
- Legend

- For AXIS TITLES – this puts generic axis titles for both the x & y axes
- Double click on each [Axis title] and re-type the actual axis label into each.
- Next, you will add in a second set of data.
- Right-click inside the middle of your graph and choose [Select Data] then [Add]
- Fill in the [Series Name] as “Horizontal”
- For the [Series X values], click on the red arrow to the right, highlight the millimoles for solutions # 6 – 8, click on the red arrow to get back to [Edit Series]
- Now for the [Series Y values] click on the red arrow to the right, and highlight the 3 Absorbance values for solutions # 6 – 8, then click [OK] to finish the [Edit Series]
- You should see 2 series of data listed – Series 1 should be renamed. Click on Series 1 to highlight it, and then click on [Edit]; you can then type “Increasing” into the name box; then click [OK] to close out the Edit box and then [OK] again to close out the select data source box
- This should show a second set of data points in a different color/shape than the first full set of data and a legend that identifies the increasing and horizontal data
- Now to add in the best-fit trendline for that first set of data (the increasing points). Right-Click on any one of the 1
^{st}set of increasing data points and all of those 4 points should be highlighted. Now choose ADD TRENDLINE. - The FORMAT TRENDLINE BOX should open up on the right. Choose and fill in the following:
- Linear
- Forward 0.010 periods
- Backward 0.005 periods
- Display equation
- Click on the [X] at top right when you are done. This will close out the Format Trendline Box

- This will show and extend the best-fit line and the equation for y = mx + b should appear on the graph. You can move the equation if it overlaps data or a gridline..
- Finally, to make the graph a full page, you can [move chart]. On the far top right, click on
**MOVE CHART**(location) and choose New Sheet and click [OK]. Or you can right click in the white area to the right of the graph and get to [move chart] and choose “New Sheet”. - Save the graph as a pdf so that it can be uploaded to BB.

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